This Version Posted: February 23, 2021
On This Page:
- Medical Masks
- Home-made (Cloth) Masks
- How to Properly Use a Homemade Mask/Face Covering
- Summary Do’s and Dont’s For Mask Use
Wearing face coverings is an important way to reduce the risk of COVID-19. That’s why it’s important to know when and how to properly wear a mask.
NOTE: The Ontario government is mandating the use of face coverings in all public indoor settings across the province, such as businesses, facilities and workplaces, with limited exemptions. For complete details, click here.
The Province is also now recommending that a mask or face covering be worn outdoors when you can’t maintain 2 metres physical distance from others outside your household.
Medical Masks (like surgical and N-95):
These must be kept for health care providers and for those providing direct care for someone with COVID-19.
If you’re experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and need to seek medical care, wear a mask. Your health provider may also recommend you wear a mask while you’re seeking or waiting for care. The mask acts as a barrier and helps stop the tiny droplets from spreading around you when you cough or sneeze.
Masks MUST be put on, taken off and thrown out properly. If you need to wear a mask, be sure to clean your hands frequently with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer. When wearing a mask, follow this Public Health Ontario fact sheet on how to properly wear and throw away one.
Homemade (Cloth) Masks
The Ontario government is now mandating that masks have to be worn in most public places across the province.
When worn properly, non-medical masks can help to cover your mouth and nose to prevent your respiratory droplets from contaminating other people or landing on common surfaces. The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) advises that putting on a homemade mask can help protect others around you if you’re ill with COVID-19 and do not yet know it. PHAC is also recommending that masks or face coverings should be made of at least three layers, including:
- Two layers made of tightly woven material fabric, such as cotton or linen
- The third (middle) layer made of a filter-type fabric, such as non-woven polypropylene fabric.
NOTE: People shouldn’t throw away their two-layer non-medical masks. If making or buying more masks, consider the three-layer mask for improved protection.
Wearing a face mask in public places, together with washing your hands with soap and water, staying home and maintaining physical distancing, are all important to help prevent the spread of COVID-19.
Homemade masks or facial coverings should not be worn/put on by:
- Children under age 2 years, or a child under the age of five years either chronologically or developmentally
- A person who is unable to remove a mask without assistance
- Anyone who cannot safely wear a non-medical mask or face covering due to medical reasons such as, but not limited to, respiratory disease, cognitive difficulties or difficulties in hearing or processing information
Click here for specific information on mask use regulations currently in effect in Ontario.
Double-masking means wearing one face mask on top of another. An example is wearing a disposable mask underneath a cloth mask.
In early February 2021, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released new research that found wearing a cloth mask over a surgical mask offers more protection against the coronavirus, as does tying knots on the ear loops of surgical masks. This has resulted in new CDC guidelines for Americans on improving mask fit, which includes adding layers of material to a mask (either by using cloth masks with multiple layers of fabric, or by wearing a disposable mask under a cloth mask).
This change comes as new, more contagious COVID-19 variants are circulating. So far, the Public Health Agency of Canada has not changed its recommendations on mask use in Canada. In November 2020, PHAC did update its recommendations to say non-medical masks should be made of at least three layers, with the middle layer being a filter-type fabric.
Currently in Ontario, you must wear a non-medical mask or face covering that covers your nose, mouth and chin inside any business or public place. Properly wearing a mask inside public spaces and maintaining 2 metres physical distance from others are important measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Masks will not stop you from getting COVID-19, but can help protect others.
While there is no instruction to ‘double mask’ in Canada, consider doing so if it makes you feel more comfortable (taking care to ensure it does not make breathing difficult). Add an extra layer to your cloth mask or try wearing a cloth mask over a disposable mask.
The best advice to prevent COVID-19 remains staying home as much as possible and avoiding contact with other people you do not live with.
How to Properly Use a Homemade Mask/Face Covering:
- Wash your hands immediately before putting it on and immediately after taking it off (use good hand hygiene while wearing it too)
- Masks should fit snugly, but comfortably against your face (non-gaping) allowing you to breathe without restriction. Masks should be secured with ties or ear loops and have multiple fabric layers
- Do not share cloth masks with others
- Remember not to touch or rub your eyes while wearing it
- Avoid moving, adjusting or touching your mask while using it, as it could become contaminated on the outside.
- Change face coverings if they get slightly wet or dirty
- Wash the cloth mask after each use as it can get damp or dirty:
- Put it directly into the washing machine or a bag that can be emptied into the washing machine and then disposed of
- Cloth masks can be laundered with other items using a hot cycle, and then dried thoroughly.
- Wash your hands with soap and water after putting the mask into the laundry.
- Homemade masks that cannot be washed should be thrown out in a properly lined garbage bin as soon as they get damp, dirty or crumpled. Do not throw used masks on the ground or in a shopping cart. Immediately after wash your hands with soap and water.
- For ideas on making your own homemade cloth masks, visit this Public Health Agency of Canada masks resource page.
Summary Do’s and Don’ts for Using Homemade Masks/Face Coverings
- Wash your hands immediately before putting on and immediately after taking off a face covering or face mask
- Practise good hand hygiene while you are wearing the face covering
- Make sure the face covering fits well around your nose and mouth
- Avoid moving the mask around or adjusting it often
- Avoid touching the covering while using it
- Change the face covering or face mask when it gets slightly wet or dirty
- Share face coverings or face masks with others
- Place on children under the age of two years or on anyone unable to remove without assistance or who has trouble breathing
- Use plastic or other non-breathable materials as a face covering or face mask